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Collaborative TB/HIV Activities

TB and HIV are overlapping epidemics, both have been declared global emergencies demanding global attention. There is an increasing recognition of the need to strengthen collaboration between national TB and HIV/AIDS programmes and other stakeholders in countries around the world because of the overlapping nature of TB and HIV infection. In particular, there is evidence that HIV infection weakens the immune system, thereby fuelling the TB epidemic among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA).

Tanzania Ministry of health developed National Policy Guidelines for Collaborative TB/HIV activities with the overall objective to provide a framework for ensuring transparent and consistent processes in developing comprehensive collaborative TB/HIV activities. This objective emphasizes the need for joint decision-making processes that take into account the comparative advantages of the NTLP, NACP, and other stakeholders.


A total of 85,749 (99%) of the 86,653 new and relapse TB cases notified in 2021 were counselled and tested for HIV status. This is below the 2020 result and End TB plan targets of 100. Of those tested, 15,287 (18%) were found to be co-infected with HIV which was lower than the co-infection rate in 2020 of 21%. Among the co-infected cases in 2021, 15,189 (99%) cases were initiated or continued on ART in both TB and CTCs within the three months reporting period after a two weeks tolerance period after starting TB treatment. Figure 10 and 11 below summarizes TB/HIV services in the country in 2021.

Figure 18: Percentage of co-infection among TB cases by region in 2021


Figure 19 Co-infection rate among age group of new and relapse TB cases notified 2021image-1.png

Figure 20: HIV positive TB cases initiated or continuing with ART during TB treatment


Childhood TB/HIV case notifications 2021

Figure 21, shows the co-infection of HIV and TB among children notified with TB in 2021.  Testing and counseling for HIV is also done to children (under the age of 15) attending the TB clinics. In 2021 data shows 1,264 (9%) were HIV co-infected cases, with age group 10 – 14 more infected than the younger age groups. 

Among all co-infected cases notified in 2014, children make up 8.3% of all cases.

Proportion of HIV positive TB cases among children TB cases in 2021


IPT provision to Children

The country is providing IPT to children under five years of age household contacts of bacteriologically confirmed TB cases. In 2021, a total of 21,551 children under five years of age who are household contact of bacteriologically confirmed TB cases were provided with IPT, which is 75% of the estimated eligible children. The percentage varies among regions from 22% in Pwani to 172% in Tabora region. The huge range among regions might have been contributed by using the national level estimate and different implementation of community activities including contacts investigations. 

Proportion of children household contacts of bacteriologically confirmed TB cases initiated IPT in 2021


Trends of proportion of children household contacts of bacteriologically confirmed TB cases initiated IPT