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Paediatric TB

Estimating the burden of tuberculosis (TB) disease in children is difficult due to the lack of a standard case definition, the difficulty in establishing a definitive diagnosis, and the frequency of extrapulmonary TB in young children. These same features present challenges to the clinician who suspects TB in a paediatric patient.

These current guidelines have been expanded to include management of TB in children to assist the clinician in evaluating and treating children from birth to 15 years of age with suspected or confirmed TB. Age-specific considerations are included throughout, and a section on children younger than 2 years describes their unique manifestations and high risk for progression to severe forms of TB.

CHILDHOOD TB NOTIFICATIONS 2020

There has been a notable increase of proportion of children under the age 15 year being notified among new and relapse TB cases. a total of 13,590 (16%) of the new and relapse TB cases notified were children under the age of 15 years, which is increase compared to year 2019 and above the national target of 15%. Among the notified; 7,794 (57%) were children under the age of 5 years, while 1,482 (24%) cases were age group of 5 -9 years and 1,177 (19%) were children in the age-group 10 – 14 years.

IPT PROVISION TO CHILDREN IN 2020

All children younger than 5 years household contacts of pulmonary bacteriological confirmed TB cases are investigated for TB. Children with signs and symptoms suggestive of active TB are registered and treated with a full anti-TB course. If there are no signs of active TB, the children are put on preventive treatment with isoniazid for six months.

In the year 2020, a total of 12,967 children under 5 years of age household contacts of bacteriological confirmed TB cases were provided with IPT. The number initiated IPT is 62% of the eligible children, which is 59% increase as compared to those initiated IPT in the years 2019